酔う子のユーラシア大陸お散歩ログ

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Subtracting 
Sedimentation(澱引き)
Small particles are collected by the gravity.

Protein fining
Collect remaining proteins using fining agents.

Chacoal fining 
Undesireble aromas and flavours are removed by adding chacoal powder.
It creates tanrei-karakuchi style, but sometimes removes some positive characteristics when over used.
Current market is shifting to 'muroka' style.

Final Filteration
Using filter which has very small pores for crystal clear color and to remove yeast and bacteria.

Pasterisation
To kill all the bacteria and enzyme. Filret cannot remove small bacterias sucha as hiochi.
・Bulk pasteurisation
 jakan method, 60-65c.
・Bottle pasteurisation
 More labour intentsive but quick and gentle, no need of 2nd pasteurisation since sake is bottled.
 Can be used for premium sake.

Unpasteurised sake
・Nama chozo
 Pasteurised once, AFTER storage
・Nama zume
 Pasteurised once BEFORE storage
・Once-pasteurised
 Equal to bottle pasteurisation.

添加物

To adjust the alcohol level

ブレンド
Sake can be blended for volume and stylistic consistency.
According to the different polishing ration, rice type or yeast type, pressing fractions, aging, etc

ボトル
Usually dark colored bottles are used to protect from the light.

 

アル添について
Jozo alcohol are added to any sake for following reason
・stop the fermentation
・to ensure desireble conponents to be extracted, and to get into sake →Increase aromas
・undesireble conponents to stay behind→lighter palate profile

For premium sake, 10% of addition is allowed except for Junmai.
For Futsu-shu 50% is allowed. Also sweetness, acidity and umami are allowed to add.

This process is not categorised as 'fortified' since water is added after the filteration.
 
四段
To control(increase) the level of sweetness Forth addition (mixture of water, rice, koji=dissolved sugar) is added to Aruten sake.

上槽
Filteration is to separate and remove the solid part.
・Yabuta shibori(assakuki) 
 This can extract large volume of liquid very rapidly.
 By decreasing the air pressure also possible to produce high quality sake. 
  Good at minimising oxidation.
・Funa shibori
  Traditional way.
 Limited use for some premium sake.
 Danger of oxidation.
・Funkuro shibori.
 No pressure added, relying only to gravity.
 Sake is collected to Tobin, 18L bottle.
 The usage is limited to super premium sake for competition.
 Danger of oxidation.
・Centrifuge separator
 Minimal oxidation risk.
 Only used for limited number of breweries.

あらばしり…Free run liquid, contains some carbon dioxide, extreme freshness
中どり…Highest quality sake, with silkiest texture and purest aromas. called To-bin gakoi for shizuku shibori
責め…Rough texture and less aromatic freshness

酒粕
Kasu buai defers depending on the way of filteration and how it is made.
Daiginjo has 40-60% of kasu buai, Futsu-shu will be around 30%.



 

Moromi
・Three stage addition(三段仕込み)
・The temperature control(12-18c, 10-12 for ginjo)
・End fermentation

 三段仕込み
If the entire amout is added to the tank at once, there is a delay before yeast reach a population large enough to balance the monversion of starch to sugar by the koji enzymes.
This delay has risk of contamination, adding more lactic acid will be a solution but it'll be too acidic.
Day1: Add 1/6 of moromi
Day2: none (wait for the yeast to multiply)
Day3: Add 2/6 of moromi (In this time 3/6, it means half of the tank is full)
Day4: Add the rest(3/6) and the tank will be full. cool the temperature to 6-10c.

Temperature control
Enzyme and yeast increase when in higher temperature.
If the target temperature is around 17c, more koji is required for the yeast.
If the temperature is around 10c, the amount of koji exceeds the yeast consumption.
When in high temperature, it produces more alcohol, and yeasts will be dead by the alcohol. The dead yeast produce undesireble flavour.

High Umami
The rice should be high polishing ratio with so-haze koji. 
Kasu ratio will be lower in higher temperature, becase most of the nutrients such as amino acid and peptide are extracted to sake.

Ginjo fermentation
The fermentation is processed under stress for the yeasts, lower temperature and less enzyme.
Isoamyl acetate and ethil caproate are extracted under this condition. 
The kasu racio will be higher since most of the nutrent such as amino acid and organic acid remain in the rice.

Batch size
For ginjo style 1 kg of rice produce 2.5L of sake, for futsu-shu it will be 5L out of 1 kg of rice.



 

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